- White stone
However, if we consider the most famous buildings of ancient Russia - Rus white-stone, it turns out that the buildings or their parts, on the territory of Moscow and Moscow region, Ryazan, Yaroslavl, Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir, and even Astrakhan and Arkhangelsk regions are made of limestone, mined in the Moscow region, in the area of ancient villages Myachkov, Tuchkov and Domodedovo. Starting from the XII. near the mouth of the river. Pakhry, and on the banks of the Moscow River in the quarries, and partly in the underground workings, tunnels, mining of this sedimentary, detrital, carbonate rock, formed in these places 230-240 million years ago as a product of a long change and petrification of skeletal remains of countless living organisms that lived in the deep sea.
In other words, the white stone and the well-known Myachkovsky limestone can be considered practically synonymous with reference to the Old Russian architecture. Of course, at that time, white stone was mined in other places, for example, near the city of Staritsa on the Volga or near Kasimov on the Oka, but much smaller in scale.
Its strength characteristics are good enough, so the buildings passed the test of time in several centuries. Some physicomechanical properties of limestone are presented by Myachkovsky - extreme indicators from I to IV quality classes are given. Hereinafter, the "White Stone" A.M. Viktorov, L.I. Zvyagintsev. Ed. "Science", 1981. Learn more about the physical characteristics of Granite properties and application and Marble properties and application.
These figures show that this type of stone almost does not lose strength even after 100 cycles of freezing and thawing, and sometimes even after 400. An example of longevity could be the ruins of an unfinished (until recently, recreated and turned into a museum) palace in Tsaritsyno. His carved white stone details were subjected to natural cycles of freezing, thawing and natural destruction, in spite of this, they lasted for 200 years without repairs and other positive effects.
The largest white-stone structure of the Kremlin and the oldest is the Assumption Cathedral , built by Aristotle Fiorovanti by 1479. It is laid out of smoothly hewn blocks of Myachkovsky limestone with dimensions of 45x40x40cm and other sizes.