Balustrades made of natural stone. History of creation and application.
Many centuries there is a history of fences, in particular, balustrades made of natural stone. Balustra? (From Italian balaustrata) - low protection of the staircase, balcony, terrace, etc., consisting of a series of balusters - shaped columns, combined on top of a horizontal beam or railings. It is for certain unknown when the first balustrades appeared. Most likely this happened several millennia before Christ, because The most ancient images of balusters were found by archaeologists at the palace bas-reliefs in Ancient Assyria.
The very first balusters were columns of small size, and they decorated the window openings. However, in Ancient Greece and Rome, balusters were not used as an architectural element. To decorate the facades, as well as to decorate the terraces of parks, the balusters began to be applied later, during the Renaissance. Balusters were widely used to protect the numerous balconies in Verona and Venice during the Quattrocento era. Their shape, so familiar and now - in the form of two bulbs, arranged vertically opposite each other, intercepted by a ring.
This form is found on the surviving Roman bas-reliefs, they show tables and chairs with legs carved from wood, or carved from stone. It is this pattern of balusters that can be seen on the corners of the base of the famous bronze statue of Donatello "Judith and Holofernes" (1460), located in Loggia del Lanzi, in Florence.
The first architect who used balusters made of natural stone as an architectural element, art experts called Giuliano da Sangalo - he used baluster for decorating the terrace and stairs of the Medici Palace in the town of Poggio-i-Cayano in about 1480. In 1502, the most famous architect, the author of the dome of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, Brunelleschi creates his masterpiece - a miniature chapel-rotunda Tempietto in Rome, using a light balustrade between its first and second tier. In the XVI century, virtually no significant construction does not remain without balusters made of marble. His popularity is due to the balustrade genius Michelangelo, who used them in their buildings and first proposed a new form in the form of a vase, shifting the center of gravity downwards. Among the most famous masterpieces by Michelangelo are the staircase of the Laurentian Library in Florence, the Senators 'Palace and the Conservators' Palace in Rome on the Capitoline Hill to Piazza del Campidoglio.
Since the Renaissance, balusters and balustrades made of granite and marble have been actively used in all ages, have been applied in all stylistic directions, easily adapting to the requirements of fashion. It is impossible to imagine the building of the Hermitage, the Kazan Cathedral or the Smolny Cathedral in St. Petersburg without parapets using balusters and half-balusters.
And nowadays, balusters made of granite continue to decorate the facades, stairs, balconies. They are widely used and in landscape design, when decorating embankments, decorating gardens and parks. The balusters made of stone create an original image that gives the whole construction a one-of-a-kind, memorable for a long time, worthy of a rich appearance.
MATERIALS FOR MANUFACTURE OF BALUSTRAD h4>
Today the most popular materials for making balustrades are natural and artificial stone b>: granite, marble, sandstone, as well as wood, metal, glass, concrete, gypsum, plastic, polyurethane. Let's consider some of them.
Products from stone, in our opinion, have a number of advantages. So granite plays a leading role among the most common types of stone for making balustrades. Granite balusters are most often installed under the open sky, it is easy to explain by the fact that in addition to its attractive natural beauty, granite has the highest performance indicators, due to which it is one of the most frost-hardy, durable and durable stone rocks.
Balusters made of granite will last indefinitely. This is an impeccable design solution for accentuation of the entrance to the building or the main building. Unlike concrete products and other balusters, made by casting, granite or natural stone balusters, do not need repair work. They do not crack, they are not afraid of temperature changes and high humidity.
Since time immemorial marble b> has been used everywhere, as one of the best building materials, which still remains the favorite today. Balustrades and stairs of marble - an indispensable attribute of luxury complexes, shops, restaurants, mansions and offices. Marble is a softer, pliable and whimsical material compared to granite. Products from it in our climate are better to be installed indoors. It allows you to make the shape of the baluster even more refined, refined, and the color variety will satisfy the most demanding taste. For many centuries, such small pillars identify the classical style, both in the architecture of buildings and in the interior, and certainly always
Such common wooden balusters b> can also be of different shapes and sizes. They are made of pine, beech, ash, oak, cherry, maple, fruit trees and other wood. This is the safest material from an environmental point of view, and the most attractive economically.
Glass balusters b> look very original, combining classics and modern trends. They are made of special multi-layered strong silicate glass using the "triplex" technology. This glass is used in structures where shrapnel injuries are unacceptable - in shop windows, office partitions, in cars. At impacts it does not break into small pieces, unlike usual, and is covered with a grid of small cracks that provides its safe operation.
Metal balusters b> are produced by casting and forging from cast iron, steel, bronze, various alloys. Unrestrained imagination of designers is able to implement the most unexpected ideas and ideas, but the main advantage of such supports is strength and durability.
Balusters made of concrete b> are used mainly in street staircases and fences, as they are able to tolerate moisture, precipitation, temperature changes quite stably. They perfectly suited to painting in different colors, so you can change the already familiar form, and are ready to serve for many years. Concrete is reliable, convenient, and ecological material.
To summarize, we can say that any material can be chosen for making balusters. The main thing is that they are reliable, safe, beautiful, very much like, and, importantly, they correspond to the stylistic decision of the building.
To get acquainted with the possible options for the manufacture of balusters and balustrades made of granite and marble, including the famous balusters designed by Michelangelo, you can go to the link Balustrade, balusters, railings.
Michelangelo. Staircase with balustrades from the stone of the Laurentian library in Florence
Rotonda Tempietto in Rome 1502 years of construction with marble columns and balustrade
The famous stone balustrades by Michelangelo Buonarroti on the facade of the Palace of Senators in Rome
Drawing balusters from natural stone, invented Yes Sangalo
Drawing balustrades made of marble, invented Michelangelo
Types of balusters and balustrades from natural granite and marble